Next Generation Science Standards Lessons Alignment - Grade 4

Physical Sciences

4-PS3 Energy
Next Generation Science Standards:

4‑PS3‑1.

Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measures of changes in the speed of an object or on any precise or quantitative definition of energy.]

4‑PS3‑2.

Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]

4‑PS3‑3.

Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the change in the energy due to the change in speed, not on the forces, as objects interact.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]

4‑PS3‑4.

Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.*
[Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include electric circuits that convert electrical energy into motion energy of a vehicle, light, or sound; and, a passive solar heater that converts light into heat. Examples of constraints could include the materials, cost, or time to design the device.] [Assessment Boundary: Devices should be limited to those that convert motion energy to electric energy or use stored energy to cause motion or produce light or sound.]

Knowing Science Lessons:

1.2 – Energy and Motion

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Define distance
  • Explain that energy can be transferred from one object to another
  • Argue from evidence that the greater the force, the greater the energy transferred to an object
  • Argue from evidence that the heavier an object, the more the energy required to move it

1.3 – The Energy Cycle

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Describe a simple example of the energy cycle
  • Cite examples of energy stored for practical purposes
  • Collaborate with others to construct a rubber band toy car
  • Trace the energy cycle in the toy car

1.4 – Balanced and Unbalanced Forces

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Construct an argument, using evidence, that when forces are balanced, energy is stored
  • Construct an argument, using evidence, that when forces are unbalanced, energy is transformed into motion

1.6 – Transferring and Using Energy

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Construct and explain devices that use mechanical energy to produce electricity
  • Construct and explain devices that convert chemical energy into electricity
  • Construct and explain devices that convert solar energy into electricity
  • Construct an electrical circuit and explain how it works
  • Collaborate with others to build devices that convert energy from one form to another
  • Explain that electricity is our most prominent form of energy because it can be stored and transferred easily and over long distances

 

4-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Next Generation Science Standards:

4‑PS4‑1.

Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and that waves can cause objects to move.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include diagrams, analogies, and physical models using wire to illustrate wavelength and amplitude of waves.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include interference effects, electromagnetic waves, non-periodic waves, or quantitative models of amplitude and wavelength.]

4‑PS4‑2.

Develop a model to describe that light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include knowledge of specific colors reflected and seen, the cellular mechanisms of vision, or how the retina works.]

4‑PS4‑3.

Generate and compare multiple solutions that use patterns to transfer information.*
[Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include drums sending coded information through sound waves, using a grid of 1’s and 0’s representing black and white to send information about a picture, and using Morse code to send text.]

Knowing Science Lessons:

4.1 – Amplitude and Wavelength

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Describe waves using scientific vocabulary
  • Model waves graphically
  • Explain that waves are caused by repetitive motion
  • Construct a simple wave generator

4.2 – How We See

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Explain that light travels in a straight line
  • Explain that light bends
  • Explain that light reflects off objects
  • Construct a simple model of the human eye

4.3 – Using Waves to Transfer Information

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Explain what a code is
  • Create a code to send information to a recipient
  • Decode a coded message from a sender
  • Describe the difference between digital and analog information
  • Explain the role of waves in transmitting information

 

Life Sciences

4-LS1 From molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Next Generation Science Standards:

4‑LS1‑1.

Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of structures could include thorns, stems, roots, colored petals, heart, stomach, lung, brain, and skin.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to macroscopic structures within plant and animal systems.]

4‑LS1‑2.

Use a model to describe that animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information in different ways.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on systems of information transfer.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the mechanisms by which the brain stores and recalls information or the mechanisms of how sensory receptors function.]

Knowing Science Lessons:

2.1 – Animal Classification

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Compare and review traits of living and nonliving things
  • Compare traits of vertebrates and invertebrates
  • Explain how animals’ physical structures and body coverings may be used to classify them
  • Identify and compare observable characteristics of each major vertebrate group

2.2 – Physical Structures, Survival, and Crayfish

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Associate the physical structures of animals with basic needs
  • Associate animal senses with survival behaviors
  • Identify, describe, and associate the physical structures and behaviors of crayfish with their basic needs
  • Design and construct a “prosthetic device” to replace a lost crayfish physical structure

2.3 – Plant Structures and Survival

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Associate the physical structures of plants (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits) with basic needs of plants
  • Associate the physical structures of plants with their specific functions and explain how these structures work together as a system in the plant
  • Observe and compare characteristics of plant structures in a variety of plants
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

2.4 – Plant and Animal Seasonal Responses

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Describe how adaptations of plants allow them to respond to seasonal changes
  • Carry out a guided inquiry about the effects of temperature on plants
  • Describe how adaptations of animals allow them to respond to seasonal changes
  • Compare seasonal behaviors of migration, hibernation and staying active
  • Carry out a guided inquiry about the effects of temperature on animals
  • Recognize and understand that conducting science investigations requires safe practices
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

 

Earth and Space Sciences

4-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe
Next Generation Science Standards:

4‑ESS1‑1.

Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in a landscape over time.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence from patterns could include rock layers with marine shell fossils above rock layers with plant fossils and no shells, indicating a change from land to water over time; and, a canyon with different rock layers in the walls and a river in the bottom, indicating that over time a river cut through the rock.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific knowledge of the mechanism of rock formation or memorization of specific rock formations and layers. Assessment is limited to relative time.]

Knowing Science Lessons:

3.2 – Fossils Tell a Story

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Recognize that fossils provide evidence about organisms that lived long ago
  • Explain how fossils provide evidence about the nature of the environment at any time in history
  • Create models to better understand plate tectonics and fossil records
  • Understand how Earth’s history is represented through geologic time
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

 

4-ESS2 Earth's Systems
Next Generation Science Standards:

4‑ESS2‑1.

Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of variables to test could include angle of slope in the downhill movement of water, amount of vegetation, speed of wind, relative rate of deposition, cycles of freezing and thawing of water, cycles of heating and cooling, and volume of water flow.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to a single form of weathering or erosion.]

4‑ESS2‑2.

Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns of Earth’s features.
[Clarification Statement: Maps can include topographic maps of Earth’s land and ocean floor, as well as maps of the locations of mountains, continental boundaries, volcanoes, and earthquakes.]

Knowing Science Lessons:

3.1 – Beneath our Feet

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Identify Earth’s layers and the characteristics of each
  • Create models of Earth’s internal structure
  • Understand how and why geologists use core sampling
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

3.3 – What is Soil?

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Identify and describe soil layers
  • Observe properties of soil samples
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

3.4 – Weathering and Erosion

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Compare the processes of weathering and erosion
  • Create models to represent and understand various types of weathering and erosion
  • Understand the impacts of weathering and erosion on humans
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

3.5 – Patterns in Earth’s Features

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Give examples of Earth’s continental and oceanic landforms
  • Compare types of maps that show Earth’s features
  • Explain how topographic maps represent contour and elevation
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

 

4-ESS3 Earth and Human Activity
Next Generation Science Standards:

4‑ESS3‑1.

Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment.
[Clarification Statement: Examples of renewable energy resources could include wind energy, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels and fissile materials. Examples of environmental effects could include loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution from burning of fossil fuels.]

4‑ESS3‑2.

Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.*
[Clarification Statement: Examples of solutions could include designing an earthquake resistant building and improving monitoring of volcanic activity.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions.]

Knowing Science Lessons:

1.5 – Researching Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Collect information on one of the six types of energy
  • Create a short informational report on one of the six types of energy
  • Collaborate with others to create an oral presentation on one of the six types of energy

3.6 – Volcanoes, Tsunamis and Earthquakes – Oh My!

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Understand the ways in which tectonic plates move
  • Explain how volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamis form and their relationship to each other
  • Give examples of preventive measures humans take to reduce the impacts of these natural hazards
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

 

Engineering Design

3-5-ETS1 Engineering Design
Next Generation Science Standards:

3-5-ETS1‑1.

Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.
 

3-5-ETS1‑2.

Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.
 

3-5-ETS1‑3.

Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved.
 

Knowing Science Lessons:

1.6 – Magnets Make Things Move (Grade 3)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Explain what kinds of materials magnets attract
  • Demonstrate that like poles of two magnets repel each other
  • Demonstrate that opposite poles of two magnets attract each other
  • Demonstrate and explain that magnetic force can pass through some non-magnetic materials
  • Construct a toy train that incorporates magnetic levitation

3.4 – Hurricane House (Grade 3)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Understand the basic engineering design process (define a problem, brainstorm possible solutions, build, test, evaluate, revise, retest, communicate)
  • Identify hazards to property associated with extreme weather conditions
  • Learn the basics of house construction
  • Match stormproof technology to appropriate focus areas of the house
  • Design, build and test a model of a house capable of withstanding extreme weather
  • Work cooperatively in a small group to accomplish the task
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

1.6 – Transferring and Using Energy (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Construct and explain devices that use mechanical energy to produce electricity
  • Construct and explain devices that convert chemical energy into electricity
  • Construct and explain devices that convert solar energy into electricity
  • Construct an electrical circuit and explain how it works
  • Collaborate with others to build devices that convert energy from one form to another
  • Explain that electricity is our most prominent form of energy because it can be stored and transferred easily and over long distances

2.1 – Animal Classification (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Compare and review traits of living and nonliving things
  • Compare traits of vertebrates and invertebrates
  • Explain how animals’ physical structures and body coverings may be used to classify them
  • Identify and compare observable characteristics of each major vertebrate group

2.2 – Physical Structures, Survival, and Crayfish (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Associate the physical structures of animals with basic needs
  • Associate animal senses with survival behaviors
  • Identify, describe, and associate the physical structures and behaviors of crayfish with their basic needs
  • Design and construct a “prosthetic device” to replace a lost crayfish physical structure

2.3 – Plant Structures and Survival (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Associate the physical structures of plants (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits) with basic needs of plants
  • Associate the physical structures of plants with their specific functions and explain how these structures work together as a system in the plant
  • Observe and compare characteristics of plant structures in a variety of plants
  • Comprehend and respond to nonfiction reading texts

4.1 – Amplitude and Wavelength (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Describe waves using scientific vocabulary
  • Model waves graphically
  • Explain that waves are caused by repetitive motion
  • Construct a simple wave generator

4.2 – How We See (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Explain that light travels in a straight line
  • Explain that light bends
  • Explain that light reflects off objects
  • Construct a simple model of the human eye

4.3 – Using Waves to Transfer Information (Grade 4)

The objectives for this lesson are:

  • Explain what a code is
  • Create a code to send information to a recipient
  • Decode a coded message from a sender
  • Describe the difference between digital and analog information
  • Explain the role of waves in transmitting information